Cardiac arrhythmias are devastating, causing almost 5 million sudden deaths related to ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT) globally each year. To treat patients with refractory VT, when death was imminent, we developed (re-introduced) neuromodulation therapy (sympathectomy, thoracic epidural anesthesia) as treatment options. This has been lifesaving in many instances. To address the striking knowledge gaps of why these therapies were effective, we discovered structural and functional neuronal changes in the stellate ganglia of patients with VT. We have developed  models (relevant to human disease) and electrophysiological instrumentation enabling direct study of the extrinsic and intrinsic nervous system of the heart. Understanding the function of the intrinsic ‘little brain’ on the heart will revolutionize cardiovascular therapeutics. We have assembled a team of physicians, scientists and engineers for this important mission. We wish to expand and apply the knowledge gained in the molecular, cellular and network levels of neurosciences to the heart. Neuroscience-based cardiac therapies are likely to be globally applicable and effective. This is best achieved by an integrated scientific approach.*
*Nurse P. Reductionism: The ends of understanding. Nature. 1997;387:657


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